Flavocin provides nutritional support important
for joint health and mobility and also contains powerful
antioxidants used to help fight the effects of aging
Flavocin was scientifically developed by a clinical
nutritionist and staff veterinarian for maintaining
joint health, strengthening connective tissue, for general
joint maintenance and support, and the prevention of
oxidative damage with the hope for a more youthful joint
with a greater range of motion and flexibility. This
is especially important if your dog has been diagnosed
with arthritis or other types of joint problems commonly
found in dogs.
With over 4 million chewable tablets administered worldwide,
customers are telling us they’re using it to help
improve their dog’s joint comfort and mobility
and to help oxidative damage caused by free radicals.
Flavocin is backed with hundreds of research studies
that support the healing properties of its all-natural
ingredients. Many of these studies specifically show
that the natural ingredients in Flavocin have the ability
to help eliminate joint discomfort, and help slow the
progression of joint problems. And that’s great
news for your dog!
Flavocin’s unique formula is a therapeutic
agent for the management of osteoarthritis and the healing
and protective effects of the ingredients in Flavocin
are well documented. More than two decades of research
studies, publications and abstracts have reported
on the health benefits of its key ingredient…
a naturally occurring plant compound extracted from
the seeds of the vitis vinifera.
Known by several trade names such as oligomeric
proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs), or bioflavanol,
or flavan-3-ol, this active ingredient in Flavocin
has been awarded United States Patent 4,963,527.
Now available in the U.S., Flavocin
contains the ingredient tested and successfully used
by Doctors in Europe for decades and is now available
without a prescription.
If your dog is suffering from arthritis
or other types of joint problems, you are not alone. It
is estimated that 1 out of every 4 dogs will suffer
from the symptoms of arthritis by the time they reach
middle age… and for most dogs that’s about
5 years of age.
That means over 16 million dogs in the
U.S. are in misery right now. And you know how painful
it can be… not just for your dog… but for
you and your family too.
It’s agonizing to see a valuable
member of your family suffer from arthritis and joints
that are so stiff, swollen, and painful that their quality
of life isn’t what it used to be.
Dogs that were once full of energy and
life are now slowing down and are more content to just
rest… rather than play. Activities like climbing
stairs, jumping in the car, rising from a nap, or just
going for a walk are now more and more difficult.
The “old way” of thinking
was that these were simply signs of “normal aging”…
along with the belief that nothing could be done. But
now Flavocin—the all-natural breakthrough joint
formula—offers new hope for aging dogs with arthritis.
While the science behind Flavocin
is well supported, it’s always nice to hear what
some actual users have to say about their own success
stories and how it has helped their dogs with arthritis
and joint problems overcome their symptoms:
have seen a BIG change in my dog Mickey.
He was always laying around and not
getting up and not wanting to play like
he use to. We started him on this product
about three weeks ago and my dog is
like a NEW dog. I'm so happy that my
dog Mickey has changed and plays with
me now! He's 10 years old now and acting
like a little puppy. He got hit about
7 years ago by my brother, and has been
having back problems ever since. When
we put him on this product he has been
acting like he has no problem with his
back. I love how my dog is always happy
and always wanting to play. Thank you
"We have four
dogs, Gizmo, Pebbles, Snickers, and Sisal. All are
miniature breeds and all have been suffering from
one thing or another... all of them listed on your
list of symptoms. Our Gizmo has had multiple symptoms,
and when he is not feeling well, watch out, he is
true to his male Lhasa Apso reputation. Bathing
him, brushing him, picking him up, all became risky
business. His eyes were runny, he limped, licked
his paws constantly, especially at night, and moaned
sometimes getting up. Very tough to watch. All of
the dogs had trouble getting up the stairs.
We have tried numerous products to relieve all the
symptoms we were seeing and for some reason or another,
we were never able to find a product that they didn't
One week on Flavocin and we want to Thank You, Thank
YOU !! Literally in 7 days an improvement in all,
Especially Gizmo, whose eyes have absolutely NO
discharge, He is laying on the floor again, kicking
out his back legs like the old days. He initiates
playing again with his buddies, and his personality
is bright and happy. In one week! Best part for
me? They absolutely LOVE the flavor. Love it! We
have a scheduled time for our Flavocin, they know
it, and they line up! Thank You again, I love seeing
a nurturing formula like this help so dramatically.
Ft. Lauderdale, FL
have just received the second shipment of Flavocin.
My 13yr old dog Rex was having a lot of problems
getting up at all. We would have to soak him in
the tub to get his hips working enough to go outside
to go to the bathroom. I was devastated to see him
in so much misery.
I ordered your product and was seeing improvement
in 10 days. He was still stiff, but could get up
on his own and go for short walks. Now he is going
for 2-3 walks a day and I am reining him in from
running on these walks. It is almost as if he were
a puppy again. The family is so happy to see him
back to normal. He loves life again and the smile
he has was so missed by us. He absolutely loves
the pills and begins begging as soon as we pick
up the bottle. We try not to handle it more than
two times a day for this reason!
I also love the fast response to emails when I have
a question, this is really a quality company. I
was shocked when I did not receive a "generic
response" that my inquiry was being looked
into. But rather you took the time to look up my
order and personalize the email with Rex's name.
You do not get customer service like this anymore
and it was shockingly wonderful to receive.
I have told everyone what a wonderful product this
is and would definitely encourage anyone to try
it. I have my spoiled rotten dog back and nothing
could be sweeter!!"
been a real lifesaver for our dog, literally! He
was so crabby and was biting whenever the kids would
accidentally step on his paws or bump into him.
Even on a daily basis we could tell something was
not right. We were at the point of having to consider
putting him down at the age of only 11.
After starting Flavocin, on the recommendation of
a canine behaviorist in our area, he's like a new
dog. He no longer hobbles around or has trouble
jumping up and down from the car. His overall demeanor
has markedly improved. We had made some other changes
as well, switching his food for one, but for a short
period we ran out of Flavocin and could see the
symptoms return almost immediately.
Thanks again for offering this product reliably
am usually not one to write letters to any business
whether it is to complain or rave about a product.
But I must write to you to tell you that this product
has made a believer out of me when it comes to my
Earl is a 5 yr. old yellow lab
that we adopted from the Humane Society when he
was 11 weeks old. He has been such a great pet
to have in our home. However, due to his size
and probably his genetics, he is already experiencing
arthritis and hip and foot problems. He had elbow
surgery when he was about nine months old and
has been on joint medicines since he was a year
old. Many things relieved the pain and did their
job, but not until I read about your product,
Flavocin and I ordered it willing to try anything
to help our beloved pet out of his pain, have
I seen such a miracle.
Earl is an avid "ball chaser"
willing to play ball at all costs. Over the last
year it has gotten to the point where we couldn't
play it with him and the vet said to keep him
to just straight walks, swimming and light jogs.
Even these exercises tired him or left him so
sore he couldn't move for a day or two. he moaned
and groaned whenever getting up or down and it
was just so sad to see this young dog acting like
an old man.
Well, I am estatic to say that
after only one bottle of this wonderful product,
Earl is acting like a two year old again with
more stamina then the 3 year old golden mix we
have. His ability to outrun and outlast any dog
at the park and to have this much energy with
out the pain and stiffness is just a miracle.
I have told all my friends and even the dog trainer
at the shelter I used to work at about this. I
have done nothing different in Earl's day to day
activities, I haven't changed his diet or level
of activity except to lengthen it now that he
has so much energy. My friends that I walk with
and know Earl have noticed a difference in him
as well. I can't tell you how great it is to see
him like this. I will be a devoted user of Flavocin
as long as it is helping him stay healthy.
I have 2 other dogs and have
considered starting them on this as well, but
for now will just keep my Earl on it as he is
the one that is need of it the most.
Thank you for such a great product."
just a few weeks using Flavocin as a supplement
for our Beagle "Huckleberry", we are seeing
vast improvement in his mobility and energy levels.
He is 7 years old and was having problems with stairs
and jumping up, but now flys down or up the stairs
as if he was a pup again. We have always fed the
best of foods, Natural Balance, etc., but have not
experienced a real health improvement until we started
using your product. Thank you for giving our little
guy a much fuller and happier life."
"To whom it
may concern, I do not know what you have done to
my dog (Pretty Boy Floyd), but I could not be more
pleased with your product. I have just placed the
order for my third 90-day supply of Flavocin and
eagerly await it's arrival. I've inadvertantly allowed
Floyd to run low, so he's only getting a half dose
daily this week.
"Ronnie" is my other little darling. She is an 18
mo. old, 65 lb golden lab mix. Ronnie is just as
healthy and spunky as the day is long. Sometimes
a little too spunky for Floyd. I believe she caused
an initial injury to his back or hind quarter by
playfully jumping on his back. I witnessed this
"injury" occur, Floyd yelped badly and began to
limp. He went directly to the vet who found nothing
amiss, diagnosing a bad strain and said to keep
him quiet for a few days. Two months later, Floyd
still had a VERY weak hind end. It would just collapse
beneath him intermittantly.
I began searching the web for help and somehow found
your site. Today, at 15 years+, Pretty Boy Floyd
is chasing tennis balls with the same tenacity he
did as a pup! He has regained most all of his hind
end control, getting stronger daily, he has either
more energy or less pain, or both! It's almost as
if I'm watching him grow younger. He has suffered
from skin allergies since he was a pup, these are
markedly reduced as well. I don't know what you've
done to my dog, but, THANK YOU!"
just wanted to thank you for helping
my dog Maggie. She had been on prescription
meds for over a year and still wasn't
getting better. After two weeks on Flavocin,
she was back to her old self. She even
likes taking it. She thinks it's a treat.
I just got on your monthly program and
just wanted to tell you how grateful
I am. Thank you for doing such a great
have about six dogs on your product. I have seen
exceptional results... our Boxer could hardly make
it up the stairs to go in and out, so I moved her
upstairs with us. Since being on Flavocin, for only
a month, two pills per day, she is back downstairs,
and is coming up too, taking the stairs three or
four at a time.
I also have a Boston Terrier who went down on the
ice and popped her patella. She could not walk on
that hind leg. After a month of being on Flavocin,
she is outrunning the other dogs, and is showing
absolutely no favoring of the injured leg. I am
so impressed with this product. Thank you!"
Kipling, Saskatchewan, Canada
ProPet Sciences, I have an 8 year old Pekingese.
For the past year and a half, he has had joint pain
and inflammation (back and hips), allergies, hair
loss and no energy. I had to carry him up and down
stairs and steps. He could no longer sit with me
in a chair because I was afraid he would jump down
and fracture his bones. I was told by the vet that
he probably would not be able to walk in another
year or two. He was being given shots almost weekly
and several medications a day. He also was having
seizures. He and I both were a mess. I was praying
that God would help him in some way.
I saw your ad for Flavocin in an consumer email
that I get daily. I read your report and thought
I would give your product a try. I was thinking
it probably wouldn't work and I was just wasting
my money. Boy, was I wrong. My little dog has been
on Flavocin for 30 days. He is no longer on medication,
he has a healthy coat, he's playing with his toys
again, and chasing whoever will play with him around
the house. I am totally amazed and grateful.
Thank God and you for your wonderful product. Thank
you so much again and God bless you."
As hundreds of others just like these customers have discovered…
Flavocin can help… because it does something
that even prescription drugs can’t do.
While many prescription drugs can help
the symptoms of canine arthritis—like pain and inflammation—they
don’t do anything to treat the causes of joint problems.
And the main cause of your dog’s joint problems
is the destruction of cartilage—the soft, spongy,
shock-absorbing substance that covers the end of bones
where they meet and form joints.
Unlike drugs, the ingredients in Flavocin
have been shown to be effective in helping both symptoms
AND causes of joint problems in dogs. Known in the
medical world as “chondroprotectives”, research
has shown that these active ingredients carry out a
remarkable 4-step process that may help dogs with arthritis
or hip dysplasia by:
What’s more, Flavocin contains both
glucosamine HCl and chondroitin sulfate. And that’s
a very important fact… especially when you consider
that so many other ordinary joint formulas or arthritis
formulas for dogs usually have one or the other, but
So, why is it so important that an effective
joint formula for dogs contain both? Because current
research shows glucosamine HCl and chondroitin sulfate
work synergistically… meaning that the total effect
of the combined ingredients is greater than each of
In fact, results from the ACVS Veterinary
Symposium Small Animal Proceedings stated, “Providing
both compounds together is therefore more beneficial
than supplying either separately.” (Anderson M,
Slater M, Hammad TA)
dietary supplements, when used correctly, appear
to work synergistically together to cause a net
increase in the amount of healthy articular cartilage,
thus slowing the progression of osteoarthritis (OA).
Because of their convenience, cost-effectiveness,
expected synergistic efficacy, and exceptional safety
record, the use of these combined oral chondroprotective
agents presents an exciting new approach in the
treatment of OA and opens the possibility of doing
more than merely addressing the symptoms of the
David S. Hungerford, MD
Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery Chief
Divison of Arthritis Surgery - Johns Hopkins University
from the article: “Treating Arthritis with
In a dietary supplement market that
is under constant government and media scrutiny, there
are certain things that you as a smart consumer should
watch out for.
For example, other ordinary joint formulas
for dogs may use a less pure form of glucosamine called
glucosamine sulfate. But Flavocin uses glucosamine
HCl…which is 99% pure. By comparison, the
glucosamine sulfate found in ordinary formulas is only
In fact, Flavocin Glucosamine HCl delivers
83.1% active glucosamine while the Glucosamine Sulfate
supplies a meager 47.8%.
That means that in order to get the equivalent
amount of glucosamine found in Flavocin… your
dog would need almost twice as much glucosamine sulfate!
And recently, the American Academy of
Orthopedic Surgeons2 gave the official “green
light” to this arthritis ingredient found in Flavocin,
saying it might actually be as beneficial as many widely
used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment
of osteoarthritis. And that’s great new for dogs
with arthritis and other joint problems.
It is also important to know... that Flavocin packs
a whopping 500 mg of Glucosamine HCl in every chewable
tablet! That’s critical because recent research
shows that to effectively treat joint problems, your
dog needs 500 mg for every 30 pounds of body weight.
Most ordinary formulas only have 250 mg of glucosamine...
or even less in their products! I don’t know about
you... but I don’t want to have to give my dog
six, seven or even eight pills a day. What a hassle...
and it can be a lot more expensive too!
Clinical tests show that the daily
consumption of the key ingredients in Flavocin not only
can provide powerful relief from the symptoms of arthritis
in dogs… but they also may help protect against
disease and the effects of aging. And that’s what
makes Flavocin so different from ordinary dog joint
By combining the patented OPCs in Flavocin
with two already proven nutrients—
Glucosamine HCl and Chondroitin Sulfate—plus Zinc,
C into an advanced joint and antioxidant formula,
relief for aging dogs could be close at hand. Here’s
Many scientists now believe that oxidative stress and
“free-radicals” may be the root cause of
more than 60 diseases including certain types of cancer,
cataracts, and arthritis… as well as the aging
As your dog grows older the production of free-radical
fighting enzymes decreases… creating even more
oxidative stress and further damage to your dog. As
this happens every part of your dog’s body gradually
Scientists also believe that the best way to fight these
free-radicals and oxidative-stress is with something
The powerful blend of micronutrients and antioxidants
like those found in Flavocin have been shown to effectively
fight joint problems AND free radicals in the bodies
of aging animals.
With a unique flavoring technology that
makes the chewable tablets “taste just like a
treat”… the continued use of Flavocin may
help reactivate the natural healing process... keeping
your dog active, healthy, and happy throughout its life.
While the many health benefits of Flavocin
seem almost too good to be true… Flavocin’s
micronutrients have been tested in well-controlled clinical
In 1987, Dr. Shinji Uchida and his team
of researchers demonstrated that the antioxidant bioflavanols
found in Flavocin were up to 50 times more effective
than vitamin E as a free radical scavenger.
In the "Review of the Scientific
Research on Pycnogenols", June 1992
H Liers reported, “The results show that the dimeric
proanthocyanidins are nearly 20 times more effective
than vitamin C at trapping oxygen radicals.”
In fact, to equal the antioxidant properties found in
just 3 Flavocin chewable tablets you would need to give
your dog… 25 six-ounce glasses of orange juice
(vitamin C) and 447 eight-ounce glasses of soy milk
Research also suggests that the OPCs can increase
the total antioxidant capacity and stimulate defenses
in blood. But it gets even better.
It is believed that the most dangerous free-radical
produced by your dog’s body as it gets older is
called the hydroxyl radical. It is so damaging
because it directly attacks DNA—the building block
of all cells. Research demonstrates that OPCs can “search
and destroy” this dangerous hydroxyl free-radical.
And that’s not all.
Research also shows that the OPCs in Flavocin may be
superior to other antioxidants because its protective
effects are multiplied in the body, working with other
antioxidants by increasing their free-radical fighting
effects. This is due to its ability to “recycle”
antioxidants after they have quenched or destroyed free-radicals,
thereby extending the life of free-radical fighting
Still another report found evidence
that the patented ingredient in Flavocin may be effective
in fighting canine hip dysplasia.
The active ingredient
in Flavocin has been tested in dogs with arthritis secondary
to canine hip dysplasia. The study was a double-blind,
placebo controlled, 14-week clinical evaluation.
Results of this study have been presented
at the 24th Annual Veterinary Orthopedic Society
Conference in Montana, The European College of
Veterinary Surgeons annual meeting in Versailles,
France and the Washington State Veterinary Medical
Association Meeting. The results have also been
presented at the Voorjaarsdagen Annual International
Veterinary Congress meeting in Amsterdam, Holland.
compounds extracted from natural sources and is not
a drug… but rather a "natural" joint
formula for dogs.
The OPCs in Flavocin
are natural plant compounds found in fruits, nuts, vegetables,
seeds, flowers and bark—making it safe for your
dog… and worry-free for you.
Used in a wide variety of supplements
and natural foods there are no known drug interactions—which
means your dog can take it with other supplements or
medications… even prescription arthritis medications.
What’s more, these OPCs have undergone rigorous
testing to meet the standards required by the Health
Ministries in France, Germany and other European countries.
In fact, intensive research was conducted
for registering it as a medicine in Europe. The good
news is that it’s now available in the US as
an over the counter product for dogs with joint problems
and other symptoms of aging.
And if that’s not enough,
wait until your dog tastes it.
Flavocin is a delicious, “bite-size”
chewable tablet that tastes so good… your dog
will think it’s a “treat”.
Other ordinary arthritis
formulas for dogs use hard to swallow pills, slimy liquids,
messy powders or worse yet, capsules you have to break
open and sprinkle on food just to get your dog to take
it. But not Flavocin.
go crazy over the yummy natural beef and
liver flavor so it’s easy to use at
mealtimes... as a tasty between-meal snack…
or as that special “treat” when your
dog is at its best.
Although many brands of joint formulas
for dogs are available… independent lab tests have
shown that many products do not actually contain the amounts
claimed on the label.
So… how do you really know you’re
getting what you paid for? The truth is, sometimes you
But with Flavocin, you can trust what’s
on the label… and what’s in the product.
Because we purchase the finest raw materials
available… your dog is getting the absolute best
product there is. All incoming raw materials are accompanied
with a Certificate of Analysis that certifies
the content of the ingredient and its purity.
The raw material is then tested to ensure
the Certificate of Analysis is correct and the
product content has not changed since the course of
the original test.
Once the materials are blended, they are
tested again to ensure compliance with the label claim
before tableting the product. At this stage, any variances
may be adjusted. The product is tested one final time
as a finished product, again to ensure the ingredients
meet the label claims.
All testing is conducted by an independent
laboratory and samples of finished products are then
kept to insure that the products maintain their potency.
here to see examples of Flavocin’s independent
lab test results.
Furthermore, all manufacturing of Flavocin
takes place in an FDA approved facility and complies
with Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs).
You’ll feel good in knowing
that since 1990, the makers of Flavocin have been providing
high quality nutritional supplements to dogs, cats and
Each of their product formulas has been
developed with the aid of a clinical nutritionist and
a staff veterinarian. They work closely with veterinarians
nationwide that not only use and believe in their products,
but also act as opinion leaders.
The makers of Flavocin have invested in
research and clinical studies to prove the validity
of the products and actively document the visible benefits
animals receive when taking them.
The Better Business Bureau has a
BBBOnline Reliability Program so that consumers
can buy with confidence from vendors and companies that
have met all its requirements.
||The BBBOnLine trustmark
confirms that our business, ProPet Sciences, has
||accredited by the
||has been reviewed to meet BBB's
truth in advertising guidelines
||discloses information about
the business and its policies
||follows basic privacy and security
||and responds appropriately
to any problems that arise
The BBBOnLine trustmark links to
a BBB report on the business, allowing online shoppers
to instantly verify a business's trustworthiness.
here to see our BBB report.
Flavocin is available only through
this exclusive offer. You won’t find it in stores
or anywhere… not even on the Internet (except right
You see, the word is spreading fast about
this amazing joint and antioxidant formula and retailers
and websites from all over the place have started asking
for it. But frankly, there is no way production of Flavocin
could ever keep up with that kind of demand—mostly
because supplies of this breakthrough formula are quite
The good news is that our company, ProPet
Sciences, was chosen as the exclusive United States
distributor of Flavocin. Our top-notch customer service
and 100% iron-clad, no-questions asked, 60-Day risk-free
guarantee make us a logical choice to offer Flavocin
directly to dog lovers all over the country.
Try the Flavocin SmartShip Plan
Risk-FREE at the special price of $34.95 for 90 chewable
“treats” (an incredible savings of $23.00
off the normal retail price of $57.95)… and
it is guaranteed to work or you won't pay for it!
If you order the Flavocin SmartShip Plan before midnight
tonight… we’ll also send you the 246-page
information-packed book “8
Weeks to a Healthy Dog” (a $14.95 retail
value) as a Special Bonus Gift… yours
to keep just for trying this risk-free offer! If your
dog has arthritis, hip dysplasia or other joint problems
this book could be perfect for you and your dog.
||How to treat your dog’s arthritis,
reduce pain and nourish and heal damaged cartilage—naturally!
||How to tell if your dog is really
healthy or if he's suffering from one of the "hidden"
diseases that can rob you of years of his company
||The best ways to get rid of fleas
||The essential supplements every
dog needs for maximum health and vitality
||How to choose the most nutritious diet
from the hundreds of dog foods on store shelves—or
make a delicious diet at home that your dog will
||How to spot the major disease trigger that
veterinarians often overlook—and how to prevent
or reverse it
||Exercises and fun games to keep your dog in
great shape (you'll enjoy them, too!)
||How to combat canine diseases with the
latest and best conventional and natural remedies
||Grooming tips and techniques that keep
your dog looking good and feeling great
Dr. Shawn Messonnier, D.V.M.,
is a nationally recognized authority on holistic pet care
and integrative medicine and the author of the award-winning
Natural Health Bible for Dogs & Cats. He is
the host of the weekly award-winning radio show, "Dr.
Shawn-The Natural Vet", on Martha Stewart
Radio SIRIUS channel 112.
His column, "The Holistic Pet," is featured
in newspapers throughout the United States and Canada,
and he's also a pet expert for iVillage.com.
Dr. Shawn’s 8
Weeks to a Healthy Dog (a $14.95 retail value)
… is yours FREE just for trying this risk-free
offer! But don’t wait, supplies of this amazing
book and special offer are limited. And please, only one
book per household.
The way I see it, the best thing that
could happen is this… you re-energize your dog by
jump-starting the natural healing process—keeping
them active, happy and healthy. Imagine in a matter of
weeks, you’ll watch as stiffness disappears…
and joints bend and move more freely… so dogs can
do ALL the things they love to do.
The worst thing that could happen is this… you return
an empty container and keep a $14.95 book…
with NO hassles, and NO questions asked! That means there’s
no risk to you, whatsoever, for trying it!
So take this important first step and make a huge difference
in your dog’s life... especially if they’re
suffering from joint problems like arthritis. Both you
and your dog will be very happy you did.
Yours in health,
President, ProPet Sciences LLC
P.S. Act now
(before midnight tonight!) and avoid disappointment…
supplies of the FREE 246-page book 8 Weeks to a Healthy
Dog (a $14.95 retail value) and the special introductory
offer (which saves you $18.00 on Flavocin) are
available only for a limited time. And unlike ordinary
formulas, only Flavocin is backed by a 60-day iron-clad,
no-questions asked, 100% satisfaction guarantee.
P.P.S. Remember, Flavocin is scientifically
formulated so your dog is getting the very best joint
AND antioxidant formula in one delicious chewable tablet.
How many other products can claim that! Try it today…
risk-free! Both you and your dog will be very happy
1,2 Statements herein are
based on published public information and do not apply
affiliation, sponsorship or endorsement of Flavocin by
the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons or Johns
Hopkins University or any of its doctors or employees.